???the Main Reason for the Rise of Terrorism Within Nation-States Is the Discrimination of the Majority Towards the Minority???
Posted On April 3, 2017
The main reason for the rise of terrorism within nation-states is the discrimination of the majority towards the minority???. Do you agree Explain your answer.
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Discrimination of the majority towards the minority is one of the reasons for the rise of terrorism within nation-states. In Northern Ireland, the majority which is the Protestants discriminate against the minority, the Catholics in voting, which in its own way led to terrorism within the country. Before 1968, voting rights was an issue between the Protestants and the Catholics. The Protestants, in order to ensure that their power in Northern Ireland remained undiluted and permanent, changed the voting system and manipulated the voting boundaries to their advantage. At that time, each household was only entitled to 2 votes, only the ratepayers and their spouses could vote. This meant that other people living in the house, be it tenants, or older children living with their parents could not vote. This was unfair to the Catholics as the tenants and adult children living at home are usually Catholics due to their lower overall economic statute and larger households. Furthermore, business owners were given more votes based on how big and successful their company is. The Catholics were thus put at a disadvantage as the bigger businesses are usually owned by the richer Protestants, they ended up being able to votes more than once. This was unfair to the poorer Catholic population. Also, the Protestant government carried out gerrymandering, drawing up voting districts such that there are more Protestants in every district. Protestants would usually vote for their own Unionist government, and as proportional representation was abolished, the Protestants would end up being voted back into government. This caused the Catholics to be extremely unhappy and dissatisfied. They had lost whatever majority they had due to the unequal voting system and restriction of their voting right. Almost everyone in the government was Protestant, and the Catholics had little or no role in government and were under-represented. This caused them to form the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association, and carried out protests and demanded equal voting rights and redrawing of electoral boundaries among other things. The Protestants felt insecure as they feared the British policy would favour a united Ireland and the second NICRA march was violently broken up by the Royal Ulster Constabulary. They attached and dispersed the Catholics with heavy handed tactics and destroyed Catholic property. The Catholics retaliated and fighting broke out which increased, with both sides employing terrorist tactics. Hence, the rise of terrorism is due to the discrimination of the majority towards the minority.
Another factor for the rise of terrorism within nation-states is due to the segregation of the majority and the minority. In Northern Ireland, education is segregated. The majority of the Catholics and Protestants go to schools that are run by their own group. Protestants go to state schools while Catholics go to schools operated by the Catholics church. The children in both schools take different subjects, learn different religions, read different books, and more importantly, learn different histories. Catholics were taught Irish history and the period of oppression when Ireland was under the British rule while Protestants were taught British history, and their curriculum tended to be pro-British. Due to the segregated system, the children of both groups do not have a chance to interact, and thus there was no platform to build a common understanding. Also, there was no opportunity for cross-community relations. Negative and prejudicial stereotypes were thus reinforced along with the tension, hatred, and distrust. As teachers are also employed based on their denomination, they themselves may spread their own prejudices in their lessons. The lack of integration and the segregation also meant that the history curriculum could not focus on building a common or national identity, and instead proved to be a divisive factor. Most importantly, many children grow up to support their own paramilitary groups. Many Catholics children ended up joining or supporting the IRA, wishing for the reunification of Northern Ireland while many Protestants children continue to support beliefs and prejudices of the adults and support the Loyalist cause or the Protestant paramilitary groups like the UVF and UDA. These paramilitary groups began to operate on both sides of the sectarian divide. Protestant paramilitary groups created more civil unrest and violence. They set up counter protests and this eventually led to escalating violence, driving more Catholics to the IRA. As a result, sectarian fighting and violence increased. Both groups carry out terrorism to achieve their own cause, setting bombs in city centers and killing innocent civilians. Thus, it can be seen that a segregated education is also a factor of the rise of terrorism.
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Discrimination in the voting system is not that big a factor. Though it does affect the whole nation as well, it cannot be considered as the most important factor. In Northern Ireland, after 1968, the voting system was changed to ???one-man, one-vote???, and electoral boundaries were redrawn. Voting no longer posed a problem, yet the violence and terrorism taking place did not lessen, but rather increased. In its own way, voting rights did lead to the rise in terrorism, but only very slightly. Due to the discrimination in the voting system, NICRA carried out peaceful protests demanding reforms, but it was the Protestants insecurity that led to them breaking up the protest with underhanded tactics, which led to the violence and terrorism.
The segregated education is the most important factor in causing the rise in terrorism in nation-states. It is the education system that shapes the thoughts of the students, who are the future of the nation. In schools, the students learn about the negative stereotypes of the other group and the different history curriculum also fuels the hatred and mistrust of one another. Young impressionable young minds, after listening to these stereotypes and prejudices for the whole of their childhood years in school, these negative stereotypes will become deeply ingrained in their mind, and the students will grow to believe these stereotypes to be true and hate the other group as well. Also, as education is segregated, students do not have to opportunity to interact with the other side and understand them; hence the negative stereotypes can never be cleared. Education is something that almost everyone has to go through, and hence it affects almost the whole nation. With so much tension in the air, all it takes is a small trigger to cause people to start fighting, and some people will use any means necessary ??“ including terrorism ??“ to cause as much damage to the enemy. Taking Northern Ireland as an example, the education system also compelled many on both groups to support their cause. Many also join the paramilitary groups to fight for their cause, and when both groups clash, there is increased fighting, violence, and terrorism.
Hence, segregation in education is the most important factor for the rise of terrorism in nation states.