The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Learning Organization

The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

BACKGROUND OF COMPANY

1.1.1

CIMB Group Profile

CIMB Group is Malaysias second largest financial services provider and one of Southeast Asias leading universal banking groups. Formerly known as BumiputraCommerce Holdings Berhad, it has been listed on the Main Board of Bursa Malaysia, the nations stock exchange since 1987.

As at 30 September 2010, CIMB Group was the second largest company on Bursa Malaysia with a market capitalisation of RM59.9 billion. CIMB Group is also the majority shareholder of Bank CIMB Niaga in Indonesia, and the single largest shareholder of CIMB Thai in Thailand.

CIMB Group offers a full range of financial products and services, covering corporate and investment banking, consumer banking, treasury, insurance and asset management. We operate our business on a dual banking basis through three main brand entities – CIMB Bank, CIMB Investment Bank and CIMB Islamic – giving customers a choice of both conventional and Islamic solutions.

As a regional universal bank, CIMB Group serves everyone from all walks of life in Malaysia and throughout the region, including large regional corporations, domestic listed companies, entrepreneurial start-ups, high net worth individuals, pensioners and children. With total staff strength of over 37,000, the Group reaches 58% of the ASEAN population, representing 80% of ASEANs gross domestic product. Our retail network of over 1,110 branches is the largest in the Southeast Asian region.

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The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

Headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, CIMB Groups main markets are Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore, countries in which we have full universal banking capabilities. Our presence in 11 countries covers South East Asia and major global financial centres, as well as countries with which our South East Asian customers have significant business and investment dealings.

In addition, we extend our regional reach and range of products and services through strategic partnerships. Our partners include the Principal Financial Group, Aviva plc, Allianz Malaysia Berhad, AIA Berhad, Sun Life Financial, Mapletree Capital Management, Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Standard Bank plc, Daishin Securities, the Kanoo Group, Malaysia Airlines, International Currency Exchange, EDS, Petronas Dagangan, Proton, Pos Malaysia, 7-11, Siner Malaysia and many more.

CIMB Vision

We

are

in

the

business

of

creating

value

for

our

customers

We exist to create value for our customers. Creating value rests on understanding our customers??? needs and creating solutions to answer these needs – the more value we can create, the more our customers will turn to us.

We believe the best way to create the most value is by enabling our people Enabling our people involves effectively placing, motivating and supporting them and ultimately, unleashing their true potential. The better we enable our people, the more value we can create for our customers.

In order to protect our reputation and business, we speak and act with integrity Integrity means speaking and acting honestly and sincerely, and treating our customers??? needs and interests as our primary focus. Our unwavering belief in integrity is what allows our customers to entrust their business to us. -2-

The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

1.2

INTRODUCTION

Facing the competitiveness of the global economy, many organizations are forced to change in order to achieve the competitive edge. When global competition couple with the demand for increased workforce flexibility, the fast pace of technological innovation, and government deregulation of industry have led to widespread corporate lay offs, workplace restructuring, and the increasing use of contingent workforce (Gunter & Van der Hoeven, 2004; Hirsch & De Soucey, 2006).

Introduced by Peter Senge (1990); Organizations is where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole thing together. ? A learning organization is the term given to a company that facilitates the learning of its members and continuously transforms itself. Pedler, M., Burgogyne, J. and Boydell, T. 1997. The Learning Company: A strategy for suatainable organization. development; 2nd Ed. London; McGraw-Hill. en.wikipedia.org/Learning

Learning organizations [are] organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together. (Senge 1990: 3)

The Learning Company is a vision of what might be possible. It is not brought about simply by training individuals; it can only happen as a result of learning at the whole organization level. A Learning Company is an organization that facilitates the learning of all its members and continuously transforms itself. (Pedler et. al. 1991: 1)

Learning organizations are characterized by total employee involvement in a process of collaboratively conducted, collectively accountable change directed towards shared values or principles. (Watkins and Marsick 1992: 118) -3-

The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

In short, learning organization is a company that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt, and change. The basic rationale for such organizations is that in situations of rapid change only those that are flexible, adaptive and productive will excel.

With rapidly developing global competition the organization needs the changes on the workplace learning. The study draws on an implementing workplace learning activities used by the organization towards knowledge management. It is uses the summaries from selected articles and journals; and also the questionnaires provided to individuals respondent from organization of CIMB Bank Shah Alam Branches. It is to review the workplace learning and it is role in developing professionalism, skills and competency through the knowledge management.

Many consultants and organizations have recognized the commercial significance of organizational learning ??“ and the notion of the ?learning organization??? has been a central orienting point in this. Writers have sought to identify templates, or ideal forms, ?which real organizations could attempt to emulate??? (Easterby-Smith and Araujo 1999: 2). In this sense the learning organization is an ideal, ?towards which organizations have to evolve in order to be able to respond to the various pressures [they face] (Finger and Brand 1999: 136). It is characterized by a recognition that ?individual and collective learning are key??? (op. cit.).

Two important things result from this. First, while there has been a lot of talk about learning organizations it is very difficult to identify real-life examples. This might be because the vision is ?too ideal??? or because it isn???t relevant to the requirements and dynamics of organizations. Second, the focus on creating a template and upon the need to present it in a form that is commercially attractive to the consultants and writers has led to a significant underpowering of the theoretical framework for the learning organization. Here there is a distinct contrast with the study of organizational learning.

Besides that, the role of the Human Resource personnel has now become even more challenging due to the unpredicted, competitive and rapid growth of today???s economic conditions. Human Resource has an integral or a central function since everyone who works in any organisation will inevitably come into contact with Human Resources Department-both effective and ineffective. -4-

The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

Therefore, a good management should concentrate its workplace learning in ensuring the quantity and quality of the employees and also Human Resource should play a role that could support all the missions, objectives and the strategy of the organisation effectively and efficiently. If the organization fails to adequately deal with the employees knowledge, negative effect on other employees and work groups in CIMB Bank Shah Alam branch will often results.

1.3

Background of Study

This study is to analyze the learning organization and the key features of learning organization that influences in the workplace towards the effectivenes of learning organization. This studies is important in CIMB Bank because through learning it can helps the employees to do their task efficiently. Facing the developing global competition today, the organization needs the changes on the workplace learning. Before successfully the impact of the application, we shall know the key features that will contribute to this study. Leave the issue persist can cause many problems for such as decreased performance among employees, low motivation, lack of organizational support, lack of knowledge, unenhancing in career goals and no specific on job training.

The key to achieve the organizational success lives in the employees??? hands since the employees are the most important assets in the organization. Their skills, commitments and accountabilities towards their duties bring the most significant effect to the organization. Similar to other assets, a reduce number of these resources subsequently especially the skills and knowledge will have some adverse impact to the organization.

Therefore, this reports intention is to investigate the key features contribution to effectiveness of building learning organization in the workplace. Hopefully from this identifying and analyzing, it can help many organization to manage their credilibility and enhancing learning activities in their organization.

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The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

1.4

Problem Statement

Currently, we are facing the developing global competition the organization needs the changes on the workplace learning which is the most aching phenomena in the workplace that may bring the organisation success. It also has been said that learning is a sign enhancing the professional skills and informative within the employees. The ultimate consequence of learning organization is its likely impact on the organization???s profitability and reputation for short term and long term.

Being an organization that does not learn continuously, forms a threat for future company performance. If learning not exist in the organization, it would be lack of motivation factors like low confidence level, not improve in their personal skills and job satisfaction, no specific on job training, lack of knowledge, unenhancing in career goals and lack of organizational support. Given the growing competitive environment, CIMB Bank need to focus on managing their employees by adding value to the individual employees as well to the organization as whole.

So that, the employees are the ones who have to cope with the challenges of changing in the environment. Increases competition will enter the international market allowing CIMB Bank to benefits from new market. As stated before, learning and gain knowledge is increasingly becoming key success factor in any business.

This study focusing on CIMB Bank Shah Alam involving five branches. The main approach for this study is qualitative study, involving descriptive research. Therefore this study have research question are used. The aim is to present a theory, based on the findings within literature of learning organizatios, and relate that to CIMB Bank. In addition, an attempt will be made to formulate suggestions and recommendation on how to implement the findings.

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The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

1.5

Research Objective

The objectives of the study are: i) ii) To define the meaning of Learning Organization. To identify the key features contribution to effectiveness of building learning organization. iii) To analyze the affects of Learning Organization to the organization.

1.6

Research Question

Based on the research objectives, this study attempts to answer the following research questions: i) ii) iii) What is the Learning Organization What are the key features that influence employees to involve in learning How learning organization affect to the organization

1.7

Scope of Study

The targeted populations for sampling gathered are from five branches of CIMB Bank in Shah Alam based on their work environment which is different department and different level of position especially who are service in the front liner department, operation department and also managerial level. My prospecting study focus in CIMB Shah Alam Branches which are CIMB Section 9; CIMB Glenmarie; CIMB Bangunan Umno; CIMB Section 18; and CIMB Hicom, Shah Alam. This area are consists of one organization that can be focused on the banking industry was selected. It has chosen this state as responder of my scope of study to investigate the affect of learning in the organization. As a result, it will affect their committent to the job task and leading for continuos learning towards the successfulness and profitable to the organization. This can be seen from the performance achievement through out the years.

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The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

The subjects of the study were covered 93 from 100 employees from CIMB Bank Shah Alam branches which are undergoing the process. For completion of this study, the researcher has used the simple random sampling where the questionnaires were distributed to respondents which are employees of CIMB Bank Shah Alam branches in order to get their feedback. The feedback will be analyzed to achieve the research objectives.

1.8

Significance of Study

The significant of this study encourage by the employees, organization and management to ensure that learning is effective to all. From the study that will be carried out, it is hoped that the employees could realizes their roles in achieving the organizational goals by enhancing their skills and knowledge and highlight how the approach can be beneficial for improving their performance. Furthermore, they also should accept the learning and improve their knowledge for their very own good.

This significance of study also can be explain as below:

i)

Employees Employees and organization must be together to achieve organizations??? goal. The employees must have a high motivation level like self confidence to do their task. Hence, it will enhance the credibility and personal skills to perform their job and performances. In the same time the affect of learning will improve their self-efficiency, self-esteem, career aspiration and work centralized. Employees also should be aware of information concerning job requirement and skill needed towards the effectiveness of learning. If they want to sustain their employability, they need to willing to learn new skills and knowledge.

ii) Organization When organization have continuous learning in workplace, it will exist the knowledgeable, capable and multi-skills employees towards the succesfull of the organization itself. Organization should provide training to the employees in order to -8-

The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

bring employees more alert of the changing of globalization and can go further with the new technology and system. With the support from the organization, it will influence the willingness of each individual in the organization to participate learning activities. It is significant for the employees performance and career success. Organization can assist employees by provide training or knowlegde centre in order to guide employees to conduct self assesment and develop their personal skills of learning.

iii) Management Management have the competencies to perform independently and effectively to achieve organizational goals. This study will help management to create action to overcome problems occur in th eorganization in order to enhance learning and to improve the the performance for long term period. In other hand, through learning organization, it will encourage to achieve higher level of performance in the same time management will improve their strategies to enrich learning in the organization. So that, it will increase the positive reaction to the job such as job satisfaction, enhancing job performance, enrich knowledge and improve the positive competitiveness in a workplace.

Through this study, it is also hoped that the individual will get some ideas and could come up with more effective ways to respond an active learning culture and improving their knowledge towards better application of works.

1.9

Limitations

i)

Information is gathering from different of levels. It is consist a different level and it is based on what they are feeling with their organization.

ii) iii)

Time constrain to accomplish the study as time given is so limited. The references and information sources are limited due to there is no information available in organization and there is no previous research regarding this issue from organization. -9-

The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

The results of this study cannot be considered as representative of the entire population in Selangor. Thus, it should be considered only as a pilot study that suggests being analyzed in future studies. This study also needed to refine and further validate the proposed recommendations for create culture to support learning organization.

1.10

Definition of Terms

i)

Learning: Learning can be defining as a relatively permanent change in knowledge or observable behaviour those results from practice or experience. [Hellriegel and Slocum in Organizational Behaviour (2004, 92)]

ii)

Organization: An organization is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, controls its own performance, and has a boundary separating it from its environment. The word itself is derived from the Greek word organon, itself derived from the betterknown word ergon. There are a variety of legal types of organizations, including: corporations, governments, non-governmental organizations, international

organizations, armed forces, charities, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships, cooperatives, and universities. A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector, simultaneously fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. As a result the hybrid organization becomes a mixture of a government and a corporate organization. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organization

iii)

Learning Organization: Learning organizations are organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together?. (Senge 1990, 3) – 10 –

The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

iv)

Effectiveness Effectiveness is a function of clear authority and discipline within an organization. (Henry Fayol). The other definition of effectiveness is a function of productivity resulting from employee satisfaction. (Elton Mayo). In contrast, Peter F. Drucker, a 20th century Austrian social scientist and author of many books on organizational management said that business should strive for effectiveness in contrast to mere efficiency. A quote from Drucker??™s book, The Effective Executive, says that ?Efficiency is doing things right, effectiveness is doing the right things.?

v)

Organizational Effectiveness Meeting organizational objectives and prevailing societal expectations in the near future, adapting and developing in the intermediate future and surviving in the distant future in the distant future. (Wikipedia)

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The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE RIVIEW

2.1

Introduction

In the literature, there are many concepts and views used to describe a learning organization and the importance thereof for companies. This literature review will give an overview of these different views of learning, what a learning organization is and how a company can become a learning organization. From these different insights, the most appropriate will be selected and will form the basis for further study. Other definitions relevant for this study will also be further explore, describing the concepts of value creation, human capabilities and growth.

2.2

Learning Organization

Learning starts from the day we born. The importance of learning was first proposed by a Chinese philosopher Confucius (551-479 BC), who believed that everyone should benefit from learning.

???Without learning, the wise become foolish; by learning, the foolish become wise.???

???Learn as if you could never have enough learning, as if you might miss something.???

Definition of the main concepts used is:

According to Hellriegel and Slocum in Organizational Behaviour (2004, 92) learning is: ???a relatively permanent change in knowledge or observable behaviour that results from practice or experience.???

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The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

Learning motivates people to grow and enables them to search for more knowledge, encouraging the quality of life and creating meaning to one???s being.

Introduced by Peter Senge (1990); Organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole thing together. ? A learning organization is the term given to a company that facilitates the learning of its members and continuously transforms itself. Pedler, M., Burgogyne, J. and Boydell, T. 1997. The Learning Company: A strategy for suatainable organization. development; 2nd Ed. London; McGraw-Hill. en.wikipedia.org/Learning

There are many definitions on learning organizations, but a clear definition remians exlusive. Some expert in the feild of organizational change methods and especially in learning organizations have attempt to define a learning organization which can quoted as follows:

Bob Garratt describes a learning organization in Creating a Learning Organization (1990) as follows: ???A Learning Organization is an organization which facilities the learning of all its members and continuously transforms itself???.

???Learning organizations are organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together???. (Senge 1990, 3)

???The Learning Company is a vision of what might be possible. It is not brought about simply by training individuals; it can only happen as a result of learning at the whole organization level. Learning Company is an organization that facilitates the learning of all its members and continuously transforms itself???. (Pedler et. al. 1991, 1)

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The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

Watkins and Marsick (1996) originally defined the learning organization as ???one that learns continuously and transforms itself. Learning is a continuous, strategically used process integrated with and running parallel to work???

???A learning organization is an organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behaviour to reflect new knowledge and insights???. A.Garvin, 1993) (David

As there is no single definition of a learning organization, the concept also covers a broad range of methods and models that can be used. The one thing that is similar in all definitions is that learning includes the continuous transformation of employees (people) and of the organization. For the purpose of this paper, a learning organization refers to the broadest definition as stated by D.A. Garvin (1993) and Wheelen and Hunger (2004, 8):

A learning organization is an organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behaviour to reflect new knowledge and insights. A learning organization is therefore skilled at four activities:

solving problems systematically experimenting with new approaches learning from their own experiences and past history as well as from the experiences of others transferring knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organization

There are various reasons why an organization might choose to become a learning organization. As Peter Senge explains in The Fifth Discipline Field Book (1994), the objectives can be to improve the quality of the employees and of the organization. This is especially valid for a service industry such as the insurance industry. Another objective might be to establish better economic performance and to gain competitive advantage. The organization???s ability to learn faster than its competition is the only sustainable source of competitive advantage. Being a learning organization enables employees to embrace change and react more quickly to environmental changes due to their experience in anticipating changes that are going to occur. – 14 –

The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

A learning organization also generates a more energized and committed workforce, encouraging employees to make the contributions they are capable of.

They learn to act in the interest of the whole organization. People and organizations learn differently. It is important to know what can be the most effective way for an organization to learn. Chris Argyris has made a significant contribution to the development of organizational learning and experiential learning. The significance of the models Argyris developed together with Donald Schon of ?single-loop??? and ?double-loop??? learning can be seen as the basis for other models on organizational learning systems.

In a constantly changing environment, new strategies can emerge from capitalizing on opportunities or countering threats that were not anticipated when the initial strategic plan was formulated. Organizations therefore need the capacity for double-loop learning, which occurs when the organization questions the underlying assumptions and reflects on the theory. For Argyris and Schon (1978, 2), learning involves the detection and correction of error. Where something goes wrong, it is suggested, an initial port of call for many people is to look for another strategy that will address the problem and then work within the governing variables. In other words, managers need feedback about whether their planned strategy is being executed according to plan.

According to Argyris and Schon (1974), this is single-loop learning. An alternative response is to question the governing variables themselves, to subject them to critical scrutiny. This they describe as double-loop learning. Such learning may then lead to an alteration in the governing variables and, thus, a shift in the way in which strategies and consequences are framed. Governing variables are dimensions that people try to keep within acceptable limits. Any action is likely to have an impact upon a number of variables ??“ thus any situation can trigger a trade-off among governing variables.

In short, learning organization is a company that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt, and change. The basic rationale for such organizations is that in situations of rapid change only those that are flexible, adaptive and productive will excel.

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The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

2.3

Key Features of Learning Organization

The traditional hierarchical organization is about planning, managing and controlling. The learning organizations of the future will be about vision, values and mental models. Learning organizations will require profound shifts in the nature of managerial work. In his textbook The Fifth Discipline, the art & practice of the learning organization, Peter Senge???s approach is to identify a set of principles necessary to build a learning organization. These principles can be used as guidelines to improve learning within an organization (Peter Senge, 1990). A discipline is an activity that is integrated into ones??? life and these five disciplines should develop as an ensemble. Senge sought components that although developed separately, prove to be critical to each other???s success in building organizations that can truly learn and that can continually enhance their capacity to realize their highest aspirations.

A great virtue of Peter Senge???s work is the way in which he puts systems theory to work. The Fifth Discipline provides a good introduction to the basics and uses of such theory ??“ and the way in which it can be brought together with other theoretical devices in order to make sense of organizational questions and issues. Systemic thinking is the conceptual cornerstone (?The Fifth Discipline???) of his approach. It is the discipline that integrates the others, fusing them into a coherent body of theory and practice (ibid: 12). Systems theory???s ability to comprehend and address the whole and to examine the interrelationship between the parts provides, for Peter Senge, both the incentive and the means to integrate the disciplines.

Here is not the place to go into a detailed exploration of Senge???s presentation of systems theory. However, it is necessary to highlight one or two elements of his argument. First, while the basic tools of systems theory are fairly straightforward they can build into sophisticated models. Peter Senge argues that one of the key problems with much that is written about, and done in the name of management, is that rather simplistic frameworks are applied to what are complex systems. We tend to focus on the parts rather than seeing the whole, and to fail to see organization as a dynamic process. Thus, the argument runs, a better appreciation of systems will lead to more appropriate action.

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The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

?We learn best from our experience, but we never directly experience the consequences of many of our most important decisions???, Peter Senge (1990: 23) argues with regard to organizations. We tend to think that cause and effect will be relatively near to one another. Thus when faced with a problem, it is the ?solutions??? that are close by that we focus upon. Classically we look to actions that produce improvements in a relatively short time span. However, when viewed in systems terms short-term improvements often involve very significant long-term costs. Peter Senge advocates the use of ?systems maps??? ??“ diagrams that show the key elements of systems and how they connect. However, people often have a problem ?seeing??? systems, and it takes work to acquire the basic building blocks of systems theory, and to apply them to your organization. On the other hand, failure to understand system dynamics can lead us into ?cycles of blaming and self-defense: the enemy is always out there, and problems are always caused by someone else??? Bolam and Deal 1997: 27; see, also, Senge 1990: 231).

The dimension that distinguishes learning from more traditional organizations is the mastery of certain basic disciplines or ?component technologies???. The fctors that Peter Senge identifies are said to be converging to innovate learning organizations which are:

Personal mastery Building shared vision Team learning

The core disciplines There are stand four other ?component technologies??? or disciplines. A ?discipline??? is viewed by Peter Senge as a series of principles and practices that we study, master and integrate into our lives. The five disciplines can be approached at one of three levels:

Practices: what you do. Principles: guiding ideas and insights. Essences: the state of being those with high levels of mastery in the discipline (Senge 1990: 373).

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The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

Each discipline provides a vital dimension. Each is necessary to the others if organizations are to ?learn???.

2.3.1

Personal Mastery

?Organizations learn only through individuals who learn. Individual learning does not guarantee organizational learning. But without it no organizational learning occurs??? (Senge 1990: 139). Personal mastery is the discipline of continually clarifying and deepening our personal vision, of focusing our energies, of developing patience, and of seeing reality objectively??? (ibid.: 7). It goes beyond competence and skills, although it involves them. It goes beyond spiritual opening, although it involves spiritual growth (ibid.: 141). Mastery is seen as a special kind of proficiency. It is not about dominance, but rather about calling. Vision is vocation rather than simply just a good idea.

People with a high level of personal mastery live in a continual learning mode. They never ?arrive???. Sometimes, language, such as the term ?personal mastery??? creates a misleading sense of definiteness, of black and white. But personal mastery is not something you possess. It is a process. It is a lifelong discipline. People with a high level of personal mastery are acutely aware of their ignorance, their incompetence, their growth areas. And they are deeply self-confident. Paradoxical Only for those who do not see the ?journey is the reward???. (Senge 1990: 142)

In writing such as this we can see the appeal of Peter Senge???s vision. It has deep echoes in the concerns of writers such as M. Scott Peck (1990) and Erich Fromm (1979). The discipline entails developing personal vision; holding creative tension (managing the gap between our vision and reality); recognizing structural tensions and constraints, and our own power (or lack of it) with regard to them; a commitment to truth; and using the sub-conscious (ibid.: 147-167). These are ?deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures and images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action??? (Senge – 18 –

The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

1990: 8). As such they resemble what Donald A Schon talked about as a professional???s ?repertoire???. We are often not that aware of the impact of such assumptions etc. on our behaviour ??“ and, thus, a fundamental part of our task (as Schon would put it) is to develop the ability to reflect-in- and ??“on-action. Peter Senge is also influenced here by Schon???s collaborator on a number of projects, Chris Argyris.

The discipline of mental models starts with turning the mirror inward; learning to unearth our internal pictures of the world, to bring them to the surface and hold them rigorously to scrutiny. It also includes the ability to carry on ?learningful??? conversations that balance inquiry and advocacy, where people expose their own thinking effectively and make that thinking open to the influence of others. (Senge 1990: 9)

If organizations are to develop a capacity to work with mental models then it will be necessary for people to learn new skills and develop new orientations, and for them to be institutional changes that foster such change. ?Entrenched mental models??¦ toward changes that could come from systems thinking??? (ibid.: 203). Moving the organization in the right direction entails working to transcend the sorts of internal politics and game playing that dominates traditional organizations. In other words it means fostering openness (Senge 1990: 273-286). It also involves seeking to distribute business responsibly far more widely while retaining coordination and control. Learning organizations are localized organizations (ibid.: 287-301).

2.3.2

Building Shared Vision

Peter Senge starts from the position that if any one idea about leadership has inspired organizations for thousands of years, ?it???s the capacity to hold a share picture of the future we seek to create??? (1990: 9). Such a vision has the power to be uplifting ??“ and to encourage experimentation and innovation. Crucially, it is argued, it can also foster a sense of the long-term, something that is fundamental to the ?fifth discipline???.

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The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

When there is a genuine vision (as opposed to the all-to-familiar ?vision statement???), people excel and learn, not because they are told to, but because they want to. But many leaders have personal visions that never get translated into shared visions that galvanize an organization??¦ What has been lacking is a discipline for translating vision into shared vision – not a ?cookbook??? but a set of principles and guiding practices.

The practice of shared vision involves the skills of unearthing shared ?pictures of the future??? that foster genuine commitment and enrolment rather than compliance. In mastering this discipline, leaders learn the counter-productiveness of trying to dictate a vision, no matter how heartfelt. (Senge 1990: 9)

Visions spread because of a reinforcing process. Increased clarity, enthusiasm and commitment rub off on others in the organization. ?As people talk, the vision grows clearer. As it gets clearer, enthusiasm for its benefits grow??? (ibid: 227). There are ?limits to growth??? in this respect, but developing the sorts of mental models outlined above can significantly improve matters. Where organizations can transcend linear and grasp system thinking, there is the possibility of bringing vision to fruition. ?Developing the abilities of the organization, the team and the individual; to learn, share best practices, create a common purpose and gain commitment ….. through Shared Vision?. Shared Vision Ltd, Stratford UK.

2.3.3

Team Learning

Such learning is viewed as ?the process of aligning and developing the capacities of a team to create the results its members truly desire??? (Senge 1990: 236). It builds on personal mastery and shared vision ??“ but these are not enough. People need to be able to act together. When teams learn together, Peter Senge suggests, not only can there be good results for the organization; members will grow more rapidly than could have occurred otherwise. – 20 –

The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

2011

The discipline of team learning starts with ?dialogue???, the capacity of members of a team to suspend assumptions and enter into a genuine ?thinking together???. To the Greeks dia-logos meant a free-flowing if meaning through a group, allowing the group to discover insights not attainable individually??¦. [It] also involves learning how to recognize the patterns of interaction in teams that undermine learning. (Senge 1990: 10)

The notion of dialogue that flows through The Fifth Discipline is very heavily dependent on the work of the physicist, David Bohm (where a group ?becomes open to the flow of a larger intelligence???, and thought is approached largely as collective phenomenon). When dialogue is joined with systems thinking, Senge argues, there is the possibility of creating a language more suited for dealing with complexity, and of focusing on deep-seated structural issues and forces rather than being diverted by questions of personality and leadership style. Indeed, such is the emphasis on dialogue in his work that it could almost be put alongside systems thinking as a central feature of his approach.

2.4

Building a Learning Organization

Learning is the key to success??”some would even say survival??”in today???s organizations. Knowledge should be continuously enriched through both internal and external learning. For this to happen, it is necessary to support and energize organization, people, knowledge, and technology for learning. (Oliver Serrat).

For organizations wishing to remain relevant and thrive, learning better and faster is critically important. Many organizations apply quick and easy fixes often driven by technology. Most are futile attempts to create organizational change. However, organizational learning is neither possible nor sustainable without understanding what drives it. The figure below shows the subsystems of a learning organization: organization, people, knowledge, and technology. Each subsystem supports the others in magnifying the learning as it permeates across the system. (Oliver Serrat)

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The Key Features Contribution to Effectiveness of Building Learning Organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches

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It is not the strongest of the species who survive, or the most intelligent; rather it is those most responsive to change. ??” Charles Darwin.

In challenging and globalization changes demand, CIMB Bank is always looking for the build and enhances learning in order to shows the highest level of learning but still the organization need to maintain and implement the continuous learning among staff and in

addition providing the training as the cornerstone of organizational success. Learning also will improve their skills, knowledge, career goals, organizational support and motivation factors that found in the explaining of the key features of the learning organization towards the effectiveness of learning organization.

There are important factors towards building learning organization in CIMB Bank such as organization which is CIMB Bank itself that play developing organizational effectiveness, people which is the employees who are intellectually curious about their work and develop experience, knowledge as a critical asset in every learning organization and the technology that Learning organizations know how to harness the power of information and communication technologies.

A learning organization values the role that learning can play in developing organizational effectiveness. It demonstrates this by having an inspiring vision for learning and a learning strategy that will support the organization in achieving its vision. The leadership of a learning organization is committed to the importance of learning and clearly communicates that learning is critical to organizational success.

The leadership recognizes the importance of providing the motive, means, and opportunity for learning. The structure of a learning organization takes into account the common obstacles to learning so it is carefully aligned with strategy, avoiding avoiding development os ?silos? which are where grains and corn are grown in organization; and minimizing unnecessary levels of hierarchy. Communication systems are used to facilitate the lateral transfer of information and knowledge across formal structural boundaries. In decentralized and geographically spread organizations, particular care is taken to use communication to encourage lateral communication and to overcome the increased danger of the development of ?silos? towards the successfulness and profitable for the organization. – 22 –

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To stimulate creativity and generate new insights and innovative practices, a learning organization takes a balanced approach to the importance of both planned and emergent learning. Planned learning is addressed through the careful development of strategy, structure, systems, procedures, and plans. In a learning organization, planning is based on careful reflection through probing questions that draw on data and information from monitoring, review, and self- and independent evaluation.

Emergent learning is equally important but takes an inherently more speculative and opportunistic approach. It is dependent on encouraging a passion for learning and knowledge sharing among staff members, developing learning competencies, creating opportunities for informal sharing, and cultivating a supportive learning culture. Failures and unintended outcomes are the focus of constructive discussions leading to new approaches. When such incidents involve clients, care is taken to protect their reputation. (Oliver Serrat)

2.4.1

Step Needed to Create a Culture that Support a Learning Organization

To compete in this information-saturated environment we are currently living in, it is necessary to try to remain dynamic, competitive, and to continue to look for ways to improve the organization. As David Garvin of Harvard University writes, “continuous improvement requires a commitment to learning” (Garvin 1994,19). Change is the only constant we should expect in the workplace, and therefore, we must rid ourselves of traditional, hierarchal organizational structures that are often “change-averse,” or undergo change only as a reaction to external events (Johnson 1993). Learning organizations embrace change and constantly create the reference points to precipitate an ever evolving structure that has a vision of the future built in. According to Richard Karash learning organizations are healthier places to work because they:

Garner Independent Thought Increase our Ability to Manage Change Improve Quality Develop a More Committed Work Force – 23 –

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Give People Hope that Things Can Get Better Stretch Perceived Limits Are in Touch with a Fundamental Part of our Humanity — The Need to Learn, To Improve our Environment, and To Be Active Actors, Not Passive Recipients (Karash 1995).

The very first thing needed to create a learning organization is effective leadership, not based on traditional hierarchy, but a mix of different people from all levels of the system to lead in different ways (Senge 1996). Secondly, there must be the realization that we all have inherent power to find solutions to the problems we are faced with, and that we can and will envision a future for our library system and forge ahead to create it. As Gephart and associates point out in Learning Organizations Come Alive, “the culture is the glue that holds an organization together”; a learning organizations culture is based on openness and trust, where employees are supported and rewarded for learning and innovating, and one that promotes experimentation, risk taking, and “values the well-being of all employees (Gephart 1996,39).

Overall, to create a culture and environment that will be the foundation for a learning organization, people must realize the beginning comes with “a shift of mind from seeing ourselves as separate from the world to connected to the world” (Senge 1996,37); from seeing ourselves as integral components in the workplace, rather than as separate and unimportant, robotic caricatures. Finally, one of the biggest challenges that must be overcome in any organization, is to identify and breakdown the ways people reason defensively. Until then, change can never be anything but a passing phase (Argyris 1991,106). Everyone must learn that the steps they use to define and solve problems can be a source of additional problems for the organization (Argyris 1991,100).

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2.5

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Figure 2.4.1: Theoritical Framework of Study The Key Features of Learning Organization (Peter Senge)

Personal Mastery – Competence and skills – Continual learning mode

Team Learning – Align and develope capacity of team to create result – Start with dialouge into a thinking together

The Effectiveness of Learning Organization

Building Shared Vision Shared vision for the future – Mastering in diciplines by learning the counter-productiveness

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES

DEPENDENT VARIABLES

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2.5.1

DEPENDENT VARIABLE

Dependent Variable is a criterion or a variable that is predicted or explained. In other words, through the analysis of Dependent Variable, information about the problem is obtained. The Dependent Variable for this study of the effectiveness learning organization at workplace in CIMB Shah Alam Branches.

2.5.2

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

An Independent Variable is a variable that is expected to influence the dependent variable. The Independent Variable for this study is key features of learning organization, factors that support learning organization and stage of achieving the key principles of a learning organization.

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CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1

Introduction

Research methodology is a set of procedures or methods used to conduct study. This chapter will explains how the atudy was conducted and how the data was analyzed based on research methodology and research design that we are adapted for the purpose of this study. In this section, researcher will the discuss the stampling technique and data collection procedures and operation manners of variable used in this study. The statistical procedure that used in this study will used in analyzing collected data will be explained in detail. This chapter discuss on how this research conducted such as the population and reseach sample, sampling procedure, data collection and the development of research instrument.

Research methodology is depends largely on the target population and how easy or difficult to access it. It is about of sample which the respondents helps to complete this study.

3.2

Research Design

3.2.1

Purpose of Study

The purposes of this study are to analyze how learning organization affects the organization in CIMB Shah Alam Branches. The most important key features influence learning organization in a workplace is Personal Mastery, Building Shared Vision and Team learning that is related to influence the learning in the workplace. This study also explains the relationship between these factors.

The study based on descriptive research design that use cross-sectional research design because it will involve the primary research that consist of the – 27 –

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population of interest. Cross sectional is widely used research design in business research and it is one-shot research study at a given point of time and consists of a sample of the population of interest.

3.2.2

Types of Investigation

This study can be called as correlational study. This method is to determine the relationship between two variables or several variables. Correlational research seeks to investigate whether one or most relationships of some type exist.

In this study, the researcher is interested to know whether the independent variable study is key features of learning organization, factors that support learning organization and stage of achieving the principles of a learning organization.

3.2.3

Time Horizon

The period given to the respondents for the feedbacks is approximately 1 week and will be collected once. Therefore, the cross-section studies are adopted for the purpose of this study.

3.3

Unit of Analysis

The unit of analysis for the purpose of this study is individual. The place that has been chosen is CIMB Bank Shah Alam Branches.

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3.4

Sample Size

It is a number of respondents chosen from the population. Population is defined as the group to which the results of the study are intended to apply to. The sample sizes of the respondent for this research are 93 of 100 employees aged 21 years old and above who are working in the five branches in CIMB Bank Shah Alam.

3.5

Sampling Technique

This study used a non-probabilistic sampling technique. Under this technique, convenience sampling will be used. Convenience sampling refers to the collection of information from members of the population who are conveniently available to provide it. It involves picking up any available set of respondents convenient for the research. The non-probabilistic sampling technique is use because of the elements does not have known or predetermined chance of being selected as subjects. It is used when time and other factors are more critical and generalize is less important.

3.6

Data Collection Methods

Data collection methods are an integral part of research design. In data collection methodology, it actually includes 2 types of methodology that going to be used. Those are primary data and secondary data.

3.6.1

Primary Data

This study used the primary and secondary data, collecting information or any data required. The research mainly involves information specifically from the primary data where it is involves collecting information from the actual sources that are from employees of five branches in CIMB Bank Shah Alam. This study gathered 100 sets of – 29 –

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questionnaires that distributed to the employees in order to generate the data necessary for accomplishing the objectives of this research.

Primary data referred to information obtained first-hand by the researcher on the variables of interest for the specific purposes of the study. In order to obtain the primary data, questionnaires are used to gain feedback from respondents. The questionaires is a written set of questions to which respondents record their answers. Questionnaires are an efficient data collection mechanism when researcher knows exactly what is required and how to measure the variables of interest. All information needed in this study will collobrate to questionnaires and distribute to all respondents to get the answer and feedback. Instruments of assessment questionnaire used to measure the effectiveness of learning organization.

3.6.1.1

Questionnaires Design

Questionnaire is pre-formulated written set of questions to which respondents record their answer, usually within rather define alternatives. Researcher has distributed a set of questionnaire to selected respondent among the employees in CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches from various division in the organization. From the questionnaires, researcher got the data needed and then analyzes it.

The researcher used the questionnaires in data collection methods which was reformulated written set of question where the respondents record their answer. The questionnaire was devided to five sections which are:

Section A : General Information The questions was designed in order to collect information regarding the background of the respondant such as gender, age, religion, marital status, role in organization, level of education, annual income and the length of working.

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Section B : Personal Mastery The questions was designed to gather information regarding the individual experince of work experience in order to build the learning in organization. (1 = Almost Never; and 5 = Strongly Always)

Section C : Team Learning The questions was designed to investigate the work experience of team or group in an organization in order to achive the organization goals. (1 = Almost Never; and 5 = Strongly Always)

Section D : Building Shared Vision The questions was designed to get the information within the team in order to share knowledge towards the succesfull of learning organization. (1 = Almost Never; and 5 = Strongly Always)

Section E : The Effectiveness of Learning Organization The questions was designed to gather the result of the effectiveness of learning organization in CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches. (1 = Strongly Inaccurate; and 5 = Strongly Accurate)

3.6.1.2

Secondary Data

Secondary data are minor facts or additional facts that the researcher acquired from other sources of least importance. The information required can be collected entirely from published sources or internal records. Hence, the secondary research that is penetrating from internet, books, magazine, annual report of the company, journals and articles are taken. Journals are written by someone who was there who wrote about the method learning. Internet is the best way to find journals. In other words, secondary data refer to information gathered by someone other than the researcher conducting in the current study. Sources from secondary data provided a – 31 –

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lot of information for doing research and problem solving. Secondary data also easy to access, save in time and cost of acquiring information.

3.6.2

Instrument

The instrument used was in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaires will be distributed to individual in order to conduct the survey. Questionnaire will consist of partly questions.

3.7

Study Area

This study will present the research methodology as the intent of the study and will sample and access the effectiveness learning organization at workplace in CIMB Bank Shah Alam Branches. There are different ways a survey can be carried out. For this study, the surveys will be done through person to person by distributing the questionnaires to employees, 21 years old and above at each department at CIMB Bank Shah Alam Branches. Therefore, when distribute the questionnaires, the questions can be explained to employees and facial reactions or body language can be observed. The period given to the respondents for the feedbacks is approximately 1 week.

3.8

Data Analysis

The distributed questionnaires than collected, the data gained from the questionnaires were analyzed using the SPSS software and finally the data will be analyzed based on Frequency, Descriptive and Cross-tabulation. As for comparisons, it is analyze by independent variable that to test whether there is any significant difference among different variables based on demographic information that have more than two categories such as race, academic qualifications and so on. – 32 –

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CHAPTER 4

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

4.1

Introduction

This chapter reports the findings of the questionnaire survey to identify the key features contribution to effectiveness of building learning organization at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches. To measure the effectiveness, the researcher explained the research findings which were obtained after the data has been processes using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 17.0.

4.2

Frequency Statistics of General Information Variables

The subjects that participated in this study were randomly selected from a complete and current list of the employees of CIMB Bank, Shah Alam Branches. Initially 100 employees were selected however only 93 usable questionnaires were obtained. This is because some of respondents was in training, on leave and others reason to unable for respondents to return the questionnaire. Table 4.2 described the general information of the respondents in five branches at CIMB Bank Shah Alam.

Frequency Gender
FEMALE MALE 21-35 54 39 50 37 6 67 14 7

Percent
58.1 41.9 53.8 39.8 6.5 72.0 15.1 7.5

Age

36-50 51-65 MALAY

Religion

CHINESE INDIAN

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OTHERS SINGLE

5 33 53 7 2 23 39 29 24 35 34 41 36 9 7 10 4 24 16 39

5.4 35.5 57.0 7.5 2.2 24.7 41.9 31.2 25.8 37.6 36.6 44.1 38.7 9.7 7.5 10.8 4.3 25.8 17.2 41.9

Maritial Status

MARRIED WIDOW TOP MANAGEMENT

Role

MIDDLE MANAGEMENT SUPERVISORY NON-MANAGEMENT SPM/STPM/CERTIFICATE

Level Education

DIPLOMA DEGREE LESS THAN RM36,000

Annual Income

RM36,001-RM50,000 RM50,001-70,000 RM70,001-90,000 LESS THAN 1 YEAR 1-2

Work Experiences

3-5 6-10 OVER 10

Table 4.2 : The frequency of General Information of the respondents

Based on table 4.2 the study shows that the general information of CIMB Bank, Shah Alam branches is comprised 93 respondents of 100. This table represents the information gathered from the respondents based on the first section or general information (Section A) in the questionnaire.

Female respondents is higher than male which is female representing 54 respondents or 58.1 percent, where male is 39 or 41.9 percent respondents. Generally, female is higher than male who are working in five branches at CIMB Bank, Shah Alam. The data also indicated that the majorities of respondent???s age is 21 ??“ 35 years old with 50 respondents or 53.8 percent – 34 –

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which are the highest average of age . There were in middle age between 36 ??“ 50 years old with 37 respondents equal with 29.8 percent then followed by age 51 ??“ 65 years old is represent only 6 respondents or 6.5 percent which are the lowest of age of the respondents.

In this study, most of the respondents are Malay which are the higest religion with 67 respondents or 72 percents. It is followed by Chinese with 14 respondents or 15.1 percent, Indian with 7 respondents or 7.5 percent and the lowest is Others religion with represented 5 respondents or 5.4 percent. From the feedback given by the respondents, the highest respondents are married with 53 or 57 percent following by 33 respondents is single status or 35.5 percent. The lowest status is widower which are representing 7 respondents or 7.5 percent.

Most of the respondents is in supervisory level which are officers that represented 39 respondents or 41.9 percent following by non-managemenet which are clerical and non-clerical with 29 respondents or 31.2 percent. Middle management is represent of 23 respondents or 24.7 percent and the lowest level of respondents is from top management which are represented only 2 respondents or 2.2 percent. For the level of education of respondents in CIMB Bank Shah Alam branches, most of the respondents have a qualification in Diploma which is consist of 37.6 percent or 35 respondents and it make it the highest qualification of respondents. It is about 36.6 percent or 34 respondents have their degree and followed by the lowest respondents have SPM / STPM / Certificate which consist of 25.8 percent or 224 respondents.

The questionnaire about the annual income gave feedback that the highest annual income of respondents is less than RM36,000 annually with 44

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