Pop Art Movement

Pop Art was an influential contemporary art movement in Western art history which emerged in the early 1950s in Britain and extended to America by the late 1950s where it strongly flourished. It was a style of art that duplicated objects or scenes from mundane life through inspiration from the elements of commercial art and substances of mass culture and media (such as comic strips and brand name packaging). Pop Art commented on modern society and culture, mainly consumerism by incorporating and characterising popular icons which were displayed with a combination of humour, criticism and irony. Pop Art initially began as an opposed reaction to the constraints of Abstract Expressionism but later evolved into the new favourable movement called Photorealism.

Abstract Expressionism was a modern art movement in America that appeared in New York City following World War II and thrived in the mid-1940s to the mid-1950s. Its development was determined by the migration of countless avant-garde European artists to New York in the late 1930s and early 1940s. Abstract Expressionism is often referred to as New York School and was the first school in American painting to announce its liberty from European styles and to influence the progression of art overseas. It is a type of non-representational, subjective art in which the artist expresses themself entirely through the utilisation of form and colour devoid of any present solid objects. The movement encompassed many techniques but shared several characteristics such as the artworks were typically abstract and portrayed structures that were not located in the natural world; they accentuated emotional expression and skill; they exhibited a solitary unified subject in shapeless space; and the canvases were large to amplify the visual result and illustrate authority. Abstract Expressionists rejected the social realism, regionalism and geometric concept which were accepted by the 1930s American painters. During the 1950s, the movement had an immense effect on the U.S. and European art as it indicated the transfer of the artistic concentration of modern paintings from Paris to New York. One of the main artists inspired by Abstract Expressionism was Frank Stella who worked in the Colour Field painting style. He produced the artwork Harran II (refer to image one) as part of his Protractor Series in which he had chosen to discard the imagery of stripes and alternatively selected to generate accurate and portrayed shapes of a totally abstract diversity. An additional renowned artist who worked in the Colour Field painting style was Kenneth Noland whose paintings comprised mainly of circles or targets (refer to image 2), chevrons (insignias), stripes and shaped canvases.

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Popular art abbreviated to Pop Art was the art movement which followed as a reaction to the then dominant 1950s artistic movement Abstract Expressionism. Pop Art rejected the sophisticated and psychological allusions and at times over intensity of Abstract Expressionism in an attempt to bring art back into American daily life. The two artistic movements entirely opposed each other since Abstract Expressionist artworks were extremely expressive and delved intensely into the personal psyche whilst the Pop Art artists??™ works associated more to realistic objects of the world. The Pop Art movement brought about new changes such as the classics were replaced with the ordinary and the new art technique of printing was employed to produce the artworks which were mass-produced and mass-consumed giving them the same significance as those of the unique works. The main change that Pop Art brought about was it bridged the gap between what was socially considered ???high art??™ and ???low art??™. Two of the major artists who worked in the Pop Art field were Claes Oldenburg and Andy Warhol. Claes Oldenburg worked in the field of sculpture making and produced sculptures of ordinary everyday objects such as hamburgers, umbrellas, ice cream, cake, etc. In his numerous works he consistently defied the laws of nature by creating hard matter into soft, making small things gigantic and common objects appear magical (refer to image 3). Andy Warhol perhaps the most recognised artist from the Pop Art movement worked in the field of printmaking and using a mass production printmaking technique known as serigraphy, produced his commentaries on media, fame and advertising (refer to image 4).

Photographic Realism of Photorealism was a late 20th century style of painting which began in the mid-1960s as an extension to Pop Art. The movement resembles photography because of its precise depictions of subject matter (form, colour, space) as it appears in reality or normal visual experience without alteration. Although photographs had been used by 19th century painters as replacements for reality, Photorealism became a style in the U.S. in the 1970s amongst artists who were mesmerized by camera images. However Photo-Realists depended on the actual photograph (occasionally using colour slides projected onto canvas) to imitate it in large-scale detail. Its remarkable technical accuracy, radiant colour schemes and visual difficulty earned the style broad popularity. Although Photorealism (also referred to as Hyperrealism or Superrealism) evolved from Pop art it had characteristics which differentiated it to Pop art such as it lacked the whimsical and ironic humour found in Pop Art however Photorealism tends to be cool and impersonal with subjects often chosen because they are technically challenging. Thus whereas Pop artists sought to highlight the absurdity of much of the media imagery relied upon by the consumer society, Photorealist painters and sculptors aimed to celebrate the integrity and value of the image. Leading artists who contributed to the Photorealist movement were Swiss painter Fr? 
An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within usually a number of years.-The concept:…
Abstract expressionism was an American post-World War II art movement. It was the first specifically American movement to achieve worldwide influence and put New York City at the center of the western art world, a role formerly filled by Paris….
Nouveau Realisme refers to an artistic movement founded in 1960 by the art critic Pierre Restany and the painter Yves Klein during the first collective exposition in the Apollinaire gallery in Milan…
Hyperrealism is a genre of painting and sculpture resembling a high resolution photograph. Hyperrealism is a fully-fledged school of art and can be considered as an advancement of Photorealism by the methods used to create the resulting photorealistic paintings or sculptures…
anz Gertsch who was notorious for his large format Hyperrealistic portraits (refer to image 5) and Ron Mueck who was acknowledged for his sculptors associated with Photorealism and were famous for being amazingly life-like painted sculptors of average people that were completed with simulated hair and sometimes real clothes (refer to image 6).

Pop Art was indeed a significant art movement which largely impacted on Western art history. Without its rejection response towards Abstract Expressionism, the new art movement of Photorealism would have never been established and Abstract Expressionism would have remained as the dominant art movement.

Chuck Thomas Close is an American painter and photographer who achieved fame as a photorealist, through his massive-scale portraits…
John De Andrea was born in Denver, Colorado on November 24, 1941 and is an American sculptor.He is associated with the photorealist, Verist and superrealist schools of art…

Bibliography:
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia:
Britannica.com.
Art Encyclopedia:
US History Encyclopedia:
Columbia Encyclopedia:
Fine Arts Dictionary:
http://course1.winona.edu/geddy/Eng353/popart.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pop_art
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photorealism
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_expressionism#History
http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O5-Superrealism.html

Glennray Tutor is an American painter who is known for his photorealistic paintings. He is considered to be part of the Photorealism art movement. His paintings are immersed with bright colors, nostalgic items, metaphor, and with a complete focus on detail…

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