Poor Laws

assignment #3: Social Work Issues and Policy Report (SWIPR). {Second part}
First: Choose a specific problem, issue, or need relevant to social work practice and the elderly. The topic should be related to a specific aging population at risk and reflects socio-economic justice issues. The topic should be three pages in length.
Second: Construct a SWIPR which will build on the first paper. Support your responses and intervention with information and data from scholarly articles or chapters.

The social work profession encompasses a deep root in the efforts to entangle the knot of poverty in society, since the time of the Elizabethan Poor Laws, which are noted to be the preliminary attempt at the policy of poverty management, to today??™s ???welfare reform??? issues that exists. Social work??™s primary concern with poverty is linked to the professional ethical norm of justice, this includes the efforts to mitigate the impact of poverty on all people, as well as, to develop policies that prevent poverty and/or assist the poor to rise to a greater economic security. Keeping the social work??™s professional ethical norm of justice in mind, the primary purpose of this essay is to construct policies that will assist in the eradication of American elders living in poverty.
However, in order to understand the magnitude of this problem, it is vital to understand the terms poverty line, or poverty threshold. Despite the dissimilar word usage poverty line and poverty threshold have the same definition which is the minimum level of income that is considered necessary to achieve an adequate standard of living (James M. Henslin, 2000). Although America is known for its wealth, million of seniors are still living below the poverty line. For many of these people poverty is the reward for adult lives spent continuously in the workforce or raising children and managing a family. And as a result of being in poverty, many good housing and poorer medical care are often out of reach for the poor elderly population or so expensive that little money that is left over for other needs causes many elders to go hungry every month.
As American businesses stop expanding, employment falling, unemployment rising, and housing prices declining the elderly population like any other group are feeling the effects of the declining real estate and the soaring fuel and food prices. With the elderly poverty rate below that of the general population, many policy makers do not see it as a major national concern. However, In Elderly Poverty: The Challenge Before Us the author Alexandra Cawthorne describes how seniors??™ economic security will only increase in importance as the United States population ages and the nation??™s health and social services resources face unprecedented demands as 75 million people in the baby boomer generation reach retirement age (Cawthorne, 2008).
{{{Mentioned policy that adjust income}}}}
According to David Callahan in the article Still with Us: Elderly Poverty in America, the 1997 United States Census Bureau estimated that 3.3 million Americans 65 and over were poor, or 10.5 percent of the elderly population; more than a fourth of all elderly Americans had incomes that placed them below 150 percent of the poverty threshold. And elderly women are substantially more likely to live in poverty than elderly men; Census Bureau figures indicate that women accounted for 58 percent of the elderly population, but were a full 74 percent of the poor elderly (Callahan, 1999).
It is vital to note that poverty is a catastrophic problem that does not affect senior men and women equally. Elderly women have a lifetime history of lower earnings due to wage discrimination, and absence from the labor market due to childbirth. For example, according

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Cawthrorne:
??? Over 2.3 million women over the age of 65 -11.5 percent live at or below the poverty line, while slightly over 1 million- 6.6 percent senior men live in poverty.

??? Nearly one in five-19 percent of single, divorced, or widowed women over the age of 65 are poor and the risk of poverty for older women only increases as they age.

??? Women ages 75 and up are over three times as likely to be living in poverty as men in the same age range. Only 416,000 men in this age range live at or below the poverty line, while over 1.3 million women ages 75 and up are poor.

??? Among married women, longer female life expectancy makes it likely that they will outlive their spouses, and be left without any additional sources of income they bring to the household. (Cawthorne, 2008, p. 2)

(((Mention Policy??”adjust income for widowed women)))
(((Mentioned Policy adjust income for women)))
In conclusion, poverty can touch a massive percentage of particularly disadvantaged groups of American during their elderly years. As noted, although, poverty varies by race and marital status many elders are not exempt from plummeting into poverty. As a result, social work as a profession must continue on the pursuit of social justice, to the enhancement of the quality of life, and to the development of the full potential for this particular vulnerable population that is marginalized in society.

Reference
Cawthorne, A. (2008). In Elderly Poverty: The Challenge Before Us. Journal of Geriatric, 23, 1-3

Callahan, D. (1999). Still with Us: Elderly Poverty in America. Retrieved from
http://www.cheatingculture.com

Henslin, J. M. (2000). Essentials of Sociology (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon

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