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Chapter 6: Imperial Triumph, Imperial Crisis
1. The Seven Years??™ War
a. Origins
1. The well-watered territory north of the Ohio River had been a no-man??™s land for decades as a consequence of the Beaver Wars
i. French and British Interest in the Ohio Country
2. By the 1750s both Britain and France had come to see the Ohio Country??™s vital to their strategic interests
3. Wealthy figures in Virginia as well as Pennsylvania began looking west and dreaming up colonial plans
4. The tangle of characters, claims of dominion, hopes for profit, and rival imperial strategies made conflict all but inevitable
5. In 1745 the Virginia House of Burgesses granted 300,000 acres of land to a newly formed and well-financed enterprise out of Virginia called the Ohio Company
6. Several years of these moves and counter-moves escalated tensions, militarized the region, and fomented resentments; but they did not resolve the standoff
ii. Washington??™s Expedition of 1754
7. In 1754 Virginia??™s governor ordered a 200 man militia under the young Lt. Col. George Washington to march into the Ohio Country and defend British in the region
8. French commander in the area dispatched an ensign named Jumonville to talk with Washington and advise him to withdraw from French territory
9. Instead it turned into a massacre. British surprised Jumonville??™s party in camp on May 28 fired upon it
10. Once Washington had gotten control of his force, Jumonville approached and tried to hand him a letter from the French commander. Before he could Tanaghrisson stepped in front of the Frenchman, sunk a hatchet deep into his head, ripped his skull apart, and pulled out his brains
11. Indians set about killing the wounded French soldiers
12. He and his surviving men returned to Virginia in defeat, bearing the news that the Shawnees, Delawares, and Mingos had either sided with the French or refused to fight at all
b. Years of Defeat
13. It??™s decision to send two decisions under General Braddock to wrest the region from France. France responded by sending the equivalent of eight divisions to Canada
iii. Albany Plan of union
14. At the start of the war representative from throughout the colonies came to the so-called Albany Congress, designed in part to deter the Iroquois from aligning with New France.
15. When France and England formally declared war in May 1756, John Campbell, the Earl of Loudoun, took command of the North American theater
16. The French appointed an effective new commanding gereral of their forces in Canada, Lousi Joseph, the marquis de Montcalm
iv. The War Widens
17. France decided to press its advantage in Europe as well. In addition to threatening England itself, French ships began attacking British holdings through out the Mediterranean
18. The war seemed to be spreading in all directions, and none of the changes seemed to bode well for the British Empire
c. A shift in Policy
v. William Pitt Turns The Tide
19. British fortunes rebounded only when the veteran English politician William Pitt came out of retirement to direct the war
20. He believed Great Britain must seize the world??™s trade, because trade meant wealth and wealth meant power
21. France was strongest in Europe, he reasoned, so Britain ought to focus its military energies elsewhere
22. He audaciously pledged to drive France out of the continent altogether. To do so he would have to convinve the colonists who had been alienated by Braddock??™s arrogance and Loudoun??™s harsh policies that they would be treated as equals
vi. Indians and the War Effort
23. The officers Pitt sent to execute the newe approach listened to colonial iNdian agents and go-betweens, authorized new, high-level conferences, and approved the distribution of presents to key leaders
24. Though French authorities often took Indians more seriously than their English counterparts, the, too, struggles to reconcile cultural difference
25. By 1757 Britain??™s unsurpassed navy had instituted a formidable blockade on the St. Lawrence that cut off supplies to Canada
d. Years of Victory
26. Most British North Americans were proud to be part of the empire and welcomed the chance to help fight for it so long as they would be treated equals
27. In July of 1i758 the British gained control of the ST. Lawrence River when the French fortress at Louisburg fell before the combined force of the Royal Navy and british and colonial troops
28. A force of New Englanders strangled France??™s frontier defenses by capturing Fort Frontenac, thereby isolating French forts lining the Great Lakes and the Ohio valley
vii. Wolfe and Montcalm Battle for Quebec
29. The British succeeded even more brilliantly in 1759
30. Under the cover of darkness, naval squadrons landed Wolfe??™s men beneath the city??™s steep bluffs, where they scaled the heights to plateau known as the Plains of Abraham
31. Five days later both Wolfe and Montcalm lay dead, along with 1,400 French soldiers and 600 British and American Troops
32. A year later the French surrender of Montreal ended the imperial war in North America
viii. Treaty of Paris
33. The Treaty of Paris, signed in February 1763, ended the French presence on the continent of North America
34. The terms confirmed British title to all French territory east of the Mississippi.
35. Spain had foolishly entered the war on France??™s side in 1762 and quickly lost Havana to British warships
36. North Americans found the victory almost impossibly grand
e. Postwar Expectations
37. The end of the war, Americans felt sure, meant the end of high taxes
38. British military spending and William Pitt??™s subsidies had money for famers, merchants, artisans, and anyone else who had anything to do with supplying the army or navy
ix. English Resentments
39. Most imperial official in America thought that if Americans took pride in being English they had done a poor job of showing it
40. British commanders charged that colonial troops had been lily-livered when it came to fighting the French
41. As early as 1755 Josiah Tucker, a respected English economist, had warned that ??? to drive the French out of all North America would be the most fatal step we could take???
42. 17i63 were not in truth revolutionaries in the making
43. Americans in 1763 divided, were not even ???Americans???
2. The Imperial Crisis
44. Great Britain had waged a costly war to secure its empire in America
45. The empire needed to be centralized. That conclusion dictated Britain
46. S decision to leave a standing army of severly thousand troops in America after the seven year war
f. Pontiac??™s Rebellion
g.

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