Difference between gene and traditional birth

Genetic engineering

1)What is genetic engineering?  How is it different from classical breeding?  What macromolecule is introduced to organisms in genetic engineering?

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i. Genetic engineering is about introducing new and short DNA/RNA segment into another organism. By the expression of the newly added DNA/RNA, the target organism would present new traits, i.e. the insect tolerant cotton.

ii.The biggest difference between genetic engineering and classical breeding is that the latter one does not have induced exogenous DNA/RNA. Classical breeding is about choosing the organism with the target traits, which is a long terms process of accumulating of the genetic materials that express the target traits.

iii.The macromolecule introduced to the organism is called liposome, which mainly contain DNA/RNA (the genetic material) and lipoprotein (act as carrier).

2)What are some of the advantages of genetic engineering over classical breeding?

Generally, genetic engineering is about physically adding new genetic materials/traits into organisms. The advantages include high efficiency, preciseness of DNA/RNA segment that could express desirable traits, and wild application in improving organism traits without introducing undesirable genes for traits.

3)What are some health or ethical concerns associated with genetic engineering in your organism?

Genetic engineering s a sensitive social concern and there™s heated debate on the health problem of genetically modified foods and the ethnic concerns of clone technology. Some published researches found genetically modified foods might cause infertility, higher death rate, and abnormal signs of organ cells and so on. And the clone technology may violate the ethnics of the relations between parent generation and its offspring.

4)How can your organism be genetically engineered?

The main types of genetically engineered crop, which is also call genetically modified food, include soybean, corn and cotton. By adding exogenous genetic materials into these crops and removing their unfavorable genes, their production and quality can be greatly improved. At the same time, these crops can have a better tolerance of low temperature, drought and insect.

5)Are genetically engineered food crops generally safe for consumption?  Is there any scientific evidence that they cause adverse health effects?

It™s hard to tell whether genetically engineered crops is safe or not in the long term. Although the officials and scientist claim genetically modified foods is safe if they pass safety evaluation, the public still have great preservation towards such products. There™re research found that the exogenous DAN/RNA segment would have impact on body by regulating certain gene expression. For instance, some mini-RNA introduced into the body might attach to the liver cell and interfere with the elimination of low density lipoprotein.

6)Based on what you have read, do you think genetic engineering in your species is a good idea?  Why or why not?

It™s true that genetic engineering can help increase the production of crop, which is of great significance in poor and population density areas. However, as a new technology, genetic engineering in crop is still needed to be explored for there™re might be long term, substantial safety threats. Besides, the genetically modified crops can be considered as alien species to some extent, which might cause genetic pollution in ecosystem. So I believe we should be prudent in applying the genetic engineering in food.

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