Posted On March 7, 2017
The evolution trend of the Chinese ancient political system, in the central performance of the continuous strengthening of the autocratic monarchy, in the local performance of the central groups continuous strengthening.
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(1) The Qin Dynasty, with the feudal autocratic centralization of state power system establish objective: to consolidate the unity and strengthen the rule.(2) The Han Dynasty, feudal autocracy and centralization of preliminary development of supervisory system, local establishments and election official system, recommending system. (3) Three Kingdoms and Southern and Northern Jin Dynasties elected officer system — the nine grades of rank in the feudal regimes .(4) The Sui and Tang Dynasties, with the feudal autocratic centralization of state power system improve the six Ministries , official selection system, the imperial examination system, military system – the ministry soldier system and mercenary soldier system.(5) Five Dynasties, Liao Song Xia Jin Dynasty strengthen centralized measures: concentrated power, concentration of administrative power, centralization of financial control, centralized jurisdiction, military system — design the Privy Council for highest military authority of the official selection system — the development of the imperial examination system: strict procedures, palace for a custom, the emperor directly control the right of admission; fewer subjects, the highest imperial examination with main to paste, the unknown name system; (6) Minority regime was a unique political system, Liao with ” dependent state people and Han divide and conquer the political system.(7 ), Yuan— feudal autocracy and centralization to development of provincial system objective: control unprecedented vast territory. (8) The Ming and Qing Dynasties, feudal autocracy and centralization unprecedented strengthening the autocratic monarchy was strengthened unprecedentedly, Ming: Central, the abolishment of the prime minister in divided into six, six directly responsible to the Emperor; where our decentralization, feudal autocratic centralization system development to the peak effect: early conducive to stable economic development, to resist foreign aggression. Effective management on the frontier of the decline of the feudal system of performance – Ming: Tibet set Wusi Tibet ; establish monk official system.. Qing: establish the canonized system (wold Dalai and Panchen must be approved by the central government canonized); High Commissioners, on behalf of the Central government, and the Dalai Lama condominium in Tibet, the central government of Tibet under the jurisdiction of strengthening the southwest area – Ming: Tusi system military – Qing:the Eight Banners system: the army and the people together a social organization; the rise and development of the Jurchen plays a important role; Han green camp army system
The implementation of autocratic centralized system objective: (1) the implementation of class oppression: control people (used to emphasize) (2) to adjust the internal contradictions of the ruling class: perfect order (used to ignore) (3) the fundamental purpose of maintaining the feudal rule, strengthen the monarchical power .The general trend of centralized development of authoritarianism and general characteristics: (1) the general trend: the formation of Qin and Han Dynasties, Sui and Tang Dynasties of Ming and Qing Dynasty (Northern Song Dynasty peak of perfection, forward step in the mainstream,prominent negative after the Northern Song Dynasty. (2)General characteristics: the specific measures are different, but there are obvious similarities (inheritance) and characteristics (Development).Evaluation:(1) objective progress: maintain the national unified development; social stability, economic and cultural development; normal Chinese and foreign economic and cultural exchanges; Ming and Qing Dynasties to resist foreign aggression (2) negative effects on peoples political oppression: economic plunder; ideological and cultural despotism, inhibit the development in science and technology, outdated; capitalism hinder development, delay the collapse of the feudal system.